Outcome goals take a lot of grief from coaches and sports psychologists. Anyone who knows me, though, has heard me speak of the importance of results in your goal setting. You have to have a clear definition of success in your mind or there just won't be anything to inform your problem solving as you go along (and there will be, most assuredly, problems to be solved). That definition can sometimes be a specific outcome, which is a difficult thing to account for when you may have little or no control over it.
Outcome goals can certainly be destructive if mismanaged. For instance, stating that your goal is to place first in a race is an example of an outcome goal that gets pooh poohed on a lot. This happens for good reason, not the least of which is that it requires you to control so many variables as to be impossible to achieve. You can't control who is racing that day, how much they trained for the event, what their genetic capabilities are compared to yours, how much more experienced they might be ... and so on. As you can see, outcome goals become problematic because you don't want to set goals in which you have little to no input. That's a path to disappointment.
Focusing on a result can lead one astray when it comes to training and self-worth, especially as each relates and complements athletic identity. Two things can make the difference in outcome goals, though: the first being how realistic your desired outcome is and the second is do you have a robust plan that respects process.
Most of the people I meet have outcome goals locked in before even considering what it will take to achieve them. "I want to finish a marathon" is a good example of an outcome that needs to be unpacked quite a bit before it can be achieved. Think about everything that goes into running a marathon. Those steps are part of what makes up the process and are essential to even starting in the first place, let alone finishing anything remotely challenging as a marathon.
Process goals are, generally, what separate the people who succeed from the people who don't; it's not even close if you compare the two groups. And this is where it gets dicey on the outcome front. "Finish a marathon" is fine as long as you understand the process that goes into finishing one--you can give yourself all the outcome goals you want as long someone can audit those outcomes and find a reasonable number of process goals to support them. If those are missing, though?
Forget it. You're not goal setting; that's just wishful thinking.
My advice is to recognize goals for what they are and be ruthless about dissecting them. Get them down to their constituent parts because it's at that most basic level of understanding that planning can take place.
Are these outcome goals?
Are these process goals?
Are these identity goals?
Are these performance goals?
Each aspect of your desired achievement can be parsed as needed, but leave nothing unexamined; the details all get a vote when it comes time to see if you succeed or not. Understanding how narrow outcomes are versus how broad process can be will help you clarify and refine your course of action. That right there will help you.
I suppose that's the key: recognizing that outcomes are singular and process is multifactorial. There has to be somewhat of a forensic analysis performed on an outcome to determine how many process steps there are necessary to achieving said outcome. That type of self-auditing is important when it comes to structuring a process that gives you every chance of success.